Background: Internal snapping of the hip is caused by the iliopsoas (IP) tendon sliding over the iliopectineal eminence or the femoral head. In many cases that require hip arthroscopic surgery, there is coexistent painful internal snapping. In such cases, fractional lengthening of the IP tendon has been suggested as an adjunctive procedure.
Purpose: To examine the outcomes and effectiveness of arthroscopic IP tendon fractional lengthening as a solution to coexistent internal hip snapping in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery for a labral tear and/or femoroacetabular impingement.
Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2011, data were prospectively collected for all patients with internal snapping of the hip who underwent primary arthroscopic IP tendon fractional lengthening, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. All patients were interviewed by telephone with specific questions regarding the resolution or persistence of snapping. Patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using the following patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activity of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS). Pain was recorded on a visual analog scale (VAS), and satisfaction was measured on a scale from 0 to 10.
Results: A total of 55 patients were included, with all PROs showing statistically significant improvement postoperatively (NAHS: 57.6 6 20.6 preoperatively vs 80.2 6 19.2 at 2 years; HOS-ADL: 60.9 6 21.4 preoperatively vs 81.8 6 20.6 at 2 years; HOS-SSS: 43.4 6 24.6 preoperatively vs 70.0 6 26.7 at 2 years; and mHHS: 62.3 6 16.4 preoperatively vs 80.5 6 18.3 at 2 years) (P.001 for all). Forty-five patients (81.8%) reported good/excellent satisfaction (7). Overall, 45 patients (81.8%) reported resolution of painful snapping. Patients who had resolution of snapping had statistically significant superior outcomes compared with those with persistent snapping using the change in the NAHS value (25.8 6 16.1 vs 8.0 6 22.5, respectively; P = .005), change in the HOS-ADL value (23.6 6 18.0 vs 8.5 6 15.2, respectively; P = .017), change in the HOS-SSS value (30.7 6 26.9 vs 8.7 6 23.6, respectively; P = .021), and change in the mHHS value (23.3 6 20.1 vs 4.4 6 9.9, respectively; P = .005).
Conclusion: A majority of patients reported resolution of painful snapping and improvement in symptoms. Nonetheless, the rate of persistence of internal snapping at a minimum 2 years postoperatively was higher than that reported in previous studies.
Keywords: iliopsoas; hip arthroscopic surgery; internal hip snapping; impingement; FAI; labrum; labral tear