Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature to determine complications of hip arthroscopy, with a secondary focus on how to minimize complications and risks.
Methods: Two independent reviewers performed a search of PubMed for articles that contained at least 1 of the following terms: complications and hip arthroscopy, hip impingement, femoral acetabular impingement and complications, or femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and complications. The search was limited to articles published between 1999 and June 2013. An additional search was performed for articles evaluating techniques on how to minimize complications.
Results: We identified 81 studies (5,535 patients; 6,277 hips). The mean age was 35.48 years, and the mean body mass index was 25.20 kg/m2. Of the participants, 52% were male and 48% were female. The majority of studies were Level IV Evidence (63%). A total of 285 complications were reported, for an overall rate of 4.5%. There were 26 major complications (0.41%) and a 4.1% minor complication rate. The overall reoperation rate was 4.03%. A total of 94 hips underwent revision arthroscopy. Regarding open procedures, 150 patients (93%) underwent either total hip arthroplasty or a hip resurfacing procedure. The conversion rate to total hip arthroplasty or a resurfacing procedure was 2.4%.
Conclusions: Overall, primary hip arthroscopy is a successful procedure with low rates of major (0.41%) and minor (4.1%) complications. The reoperation rate was 4.03% in our review. There is admittedly a learning curve to performing hip arthroscopy, and we present a systematic review of the complications and how to minimize these complications with careful technique and planning.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level II to V studies.